In the startup world, Spotify’s story is the stuff of legends.

Founded in 2006 by Daniel Ek and Martin Lorentzon, the audio-sharing platform quickly became a household name and achieved “unicorn” status, reaching a valuation of over $1 billion before going public in 2018. Now, it’s the world’s largest music streaming service, with over 550 million subscribers worldwide.

Speculations about the company’s success often turn to Spotify’s agile model, developed to meet its needs as it experienced unexpected growth.

Following Spotify’s example may seem tempting, but before doing so, it’s crucial to understand precisely what the Spotify model entails, including both the pros and cons of this agile approach.

What’s the Spotify model?

When Spotify started, it relied on a classic agile organizational structure. But as it experienced rapid growth, company leaders realized that many of their processes were slowing them down. They looked hard at their structure and started adjusting where they saw fit. The resulting structure is now referred to as the Spotify model.

This model broke larger groups into small Spotify teams called “squads,” each with the autonomy to identify problems and develop solutions. In this way, Spotify’s engineering culture fostered innovation and quick responses to change. The organization was further structured into “tribes,” chapters,” and “guilds” to encourage the squads to collaborate with each other.

Key components of the Spotify model

Taking a people-centric approach, the Spotify model focuses on aligning team members into roles where they can make the most significant impact. Each team has a critical role in facilitating scalable growth via this model.


Squads are the basic unit within Spotify’s agile framework. These agile squads typically consist of 12 or fewer members. While they have a defined mission, they decide how to achieve it.

With autonomy comes a sense of ownership and creativity. Squads can act according to their own preferences and best interests to accomplish their goals.


Formed from multiple squads, tribes typically focus on a business area or product. Each team in the tribe works independently, but they all share a larger vision for what they want to accomplish.

At the head of the group, a tribe leader takes responsibility for ensuring the entire tribe moves in the right direction, working to keep everyone aligned and cohesive.


Chapters are cross-functional groups that focus on continuous development within a specific discipline. They allow members from different squads to connect, share knowledge, and develop their skills.

Being part of a chapter encourages insight-sharing and a sense of camaraderie among peers.


When a community of individuals shares a common interest, they can form a guild. Spotify guilds are informal, and anyone can participate in the group’s activities.

While they don’t directly impact products and services, guilds are vital in bringing the team closer together. They break down silos and encourage the cross-pollination of ideas throughout the organization.


A trio includes three roles: product owner, agile coach, and chapter lead. Each position contributes a unique perspective to the company’s ongoing projects:

  • The product owner focuses on the vision for the product, prioritizing tasks based on overall objectives
  • The agile coach assists the team in employing agile practices effectively
  • The chapter lead ensures the personal growth and well-being of the team members


An alliance includes multiple squads working toward a common goal. Depending on the purpose, the partnership can be temporary or long-term.

Managing alliances can be tricky since it takes alignment across various business functions. But the rewards can be great as cross-functional teams form to build upon each others’ diverse strengths.

The Spotify model’s pros and cons

The Spotify model has proven effective for the scalable growth of a global company. Still, it doesn’t suit every company, and understanding its pros and cons can help determine whether it’s a good fit for your business.

Benefits of the Spotify model

  • Autonomy: Each squad is independent, free to make decisions and take ownership of their work. This can result in increased job satisfaction and productivity.
  • Flexibility: The model is adaptive to business needs. It encourages flexibility, which allows teams to adjust based on project requirements and market dynamics.
  • Cross-functional collaboration: Alliances provide an opportunity for creative collaboration between teams. When squads come together to discuss projects, they enjoy exchanging ideas and perspectives from their peers.
  • Effective communication: This model advocates for open and frequent communication, facilitating a shared understanding of project objects to keep squads aligned.
  • Scalability: The Spotify model is highly scalable due to its modular nature. Businesses can quickly expand or contract depending on their needs.

Cons of the Spotify model

  • No clear hierarchy: The Spotify organizational structure is flat, which encourages autonomy but may leave teams wondering who makes decisions. Projects can easily stall without a clear leader guiding the path.
  • Risk of silos: Despite the aim for collaboration, having autonomous squads can result in silos where teams choose to work independently. When squads separate from the rest of the company, a lack of communication could lead to issues.
  • Requires significant buy-in: Due to its unique nature, the Spotify model requires team members to shift their work style to adapt to the framework. Team members may be happier to work within a more traditional hierarchical structure.
  • Dependent on talent across squads: With each team controlling its destiny, lacking talent could lead to an ineffective work group. Each team needs a fair share of competence and expertise to perform at the highest level.
  • Potential for inconsistency: Squads choose their own work methods, leading to company inconsistencies. Alliances may need help due to differences in workflows or processes.

Should you implement the Spotify model?

The Spotify model excels in companies that value creativity, innovation, and fast results. It works best when employees are talented and proactive in their work.

Companies need to have a clear vision to make the Spotify model work. Teams must be able to work independently while having the flexibility to collaborate with their peers when needed.

And leaders must understand the potential for silos and inconsistencies between squads. Talent must be distributed across units so each group can add value to the business.

Ultimately, whether or not you should implement this model depends on your business. In many cases, implementing agile is a better option since it has a more robust framework (SAFe) to follow, one that mitigates many of the disadvantages of the Spotify model.

How to successfully implement the Spotify model in your organization

If you’d like to try the Spotify model, successful implementation requires buy-in from the entire company and a clear vision for the future. Follow this six-step guide and enjoy creating a team of autonomous individuals effectively collaborating on shared goals.

1. Engage stakeholders

To successfully transition to the Spotify model, establish open communication channels with key stakeholders. Ensure that everyone, from top leadership to team members, grasps the strengths and potential challenges of this agile model, as well as why you’re making this transition.

By gaining comprehensive support from the beginning, the subsequent stages of this implementation roadmap will naturally follow a more cohesive and push-back-free path.

2. Train employees

Shifting away from a traditional hierarchy may surprise some employees, with team members needing help adjusting their mindset and routine processes.

To ensure a seamless transition, consider organizing specialized training sessions or workshops. These sessions should communicate the structural changes and empower employees to navigate and thrive within the new framework.

3. Define goals

Every squad under the Spotify model should operate with a clear sense of direction. Set well-defined, measurable objectives to instill a sense of purpose and motivation.

And, like agile’s SAFe PI planning, squads should convene regularly to plan upcoming work, ensuring everyone is aligned and up-to-date on current accomplishments and pipeline projects.

4. Foster autonomy

One of the Spotify model’s core tenets is autonomy. Cultivate an environment where squads are not just allowed but encouraged to take initiative and make decisions. In this empowered state, squads will feel responsible for their decisions and be more inclined to celebrate their achievements with pride.

5. Encourage collaboration

Collaboration is another core principle of the Spotify model. Strengthen ties between squads and tribes by promoting a culture of knowledge exchange. Whether through regular meetings, town halls, social gatherings, or the establishment of inter-squad alliances, ensure that there’s a continuous flow of ideas and insights across the organization.

6. Find ways to improve

Continuous improvement is at the heart of agile methodologies. Regularly evaluate the performance and health of the squads. By actively seeking feedback from all teams and addressing any identified concerns, the organization can refine its practices and stay on the cutting edge of agile development.

The best agile tools for your team

Whether you use the Spotify model, another agile methodology, or a more traditional project management structure, Roadmunk by Tempo can keep you organized and your team on track. With custom roadmaps, templates, and team timesheets in one place, you’ll spend less time getting organized and more time working on your projects. Sign up today.